I am a social scientist based at the University of Oxford. My research applies Self-Determination Theory, a macro-theory of human motivation, created by my collaborators Ed Deci and Richard Ryan, to study a wide range of psychological processes. My primary interests are focused on the role of motivation for people when they are engaged with virtual and real-life environments.
In particular, I am interested in what makes electronic games and social media motivating and what leads people to vary in the degree to which they succeed in regulating their engagement.
If you have questions about my work or do not have access to any of the journals in which my research is published, please contact me and I will be happy to see if I can help.
After the unmasking of the so-called “washing ecobola” , one could think that the business of the mechanisms to clean without soap would definitely be stopped. Nothing is further from reality; Although with less fury, continue to sell. Of course, complying with the order to remove misleading advertising, at least in part.
Consumers, alerted to a matter such as the ecovola, might also be expected to distrust other magical products that offer identically unsustainable solutions. Again, nothing further from reality.
However, it is not surprising that there is still a fertilized ground for any kind of pseudoscientific paraphernalia if we think that there are people capable of carrying out reasonings like the following, extracted from any blog, about the ecobola de marras and the resolution of the National Institute About misleading advertising:
If this is true, do you see it right? That after allowing the sale of the eco-ball, for years in the market and once it has been the best-selling product in Spain, tell us that it is a scam ….
It is amazing, as if to trust what we consume and eat, so that they are sanity and consumption? Is not to filter before reaching the consumer the product in poor condition or does not meet certain requirements.
Who are going to fine the eco-ball to health or consumption?
Who are we going to compensate consumers who have used the eco-ball for years?
This is just a brushstroke of how our great control system works ….
That is to say, you have been using for years a product that does not work, believing and defending that it did and, when the administration takes letters in the matter, you accuse it of not having warned before and request an indemnification. Let’s see, we are not talking about an undetectable chemical hidden in industrial bakery and ingested without knowledge. Are you insinuating that we are so stupid that if we do not notify the state we are unable to realize that a car has no wheels, that a light bulb does not give light or that a piece of plastic does not clean as your detergent ?. The truth is that sometimes I think we have what we deserve.
The types of reactions are very varied, like this one that has also been quite funny:
Ecoballs do not work. And that?
It turns out that what cleans the clothes when using the ecobolas, is the water. Washing clothes at 30 or 40 ° most of the day-to-day dirt disappears, with or without ecoball, with or without detergent. What ensures the balls, is that the laundry does not make a lump inside the machine so that the water can circulate between all the garments. Generally the people who use the ecobolas are very satisfied, and when they realize that “scientifically” they do not work, they remain astonished
Yes, for me, the ecobolas are like a placebo type medicine. While you do not know it does not work, you will notice the effect. And once they tell you it’s a placebo, you will not care anymore, because you’ve already proven that you can live without taking “medicine” for real. Ecoballs have drawn many skeptical people to the fact that they can use less detergent, and with that they already fulfill their mission, in a way.
I would like to see if, after buying a house and collapsing at two years old, the poor tenant would say “well, this collapse has helped me to know that I can live on the fucking street, thanks to the builder! “.
Beyond the ecobolas: the ecoduchas
Stockholm syndromes aside, the theme I was bringing today was not the archives of eco-washing, but another product that emerged in parallel and now returns to the load in many webs, telesales and mail-order catalogs: “ecoduchas”.
The truth is that with that name already a little splash the invention, but if we stop to read the specifications, the story is of note: these are Drips and Drops showerheads equipped with ceramic balls and an exit with micropores that break the molecules Of water (it is seen that they are very small) and cause a rain of ions that, of course, turn out to be super-cleaners without soap or other czarandajas.
This does tonify, relax and heal until the piles
We started badly from the start. That some holes are so small as to break water molecules, it sounds like chufla. In order to support the action of the holes, the propaganda often resorted to the fact that the process is based on the Lenard effect, and they remain so wide.
But the Lenard effect, also known as aerosol electrification or cascade effect, does not consist of breaking the water molecule, men of God, but water droplets, which is something very different. The Lenard effect, first studied systematically by Philipp Lenard (1862-1947), consists of the generation of ions by the electric charges that the water molecule yields to the oxygen or carbon dioxide of the air through a friction between The droplets of the liquid when hitting the air or a surface of water, as it happens in a waterfall or in the swell. It can also be produced in any aerosol , depending on several factors such as the temperature, the speed of the current of air with which it collides and the impurities present.
Logically, a small household spray or a normal shower, produces a very modest Lenard effect. However, a certain level of ionization may occur, but there is no need for micropores or ceramics to do so. Just any shower head that projects water with sufficient force. Now that the ions clean more than the water, is a lot to say and, of course, neither Lenard nor its effect says anything about it. This is the typical pseudoscientific argument that consists in asserting something testable and extracting as a consequence something that does not derive from the above statement, which is known in logic as a fallacy non sequitur : “John is a man, so men can breathe under of the water”
Last (and esoteric) technology
As we deepen and gather more details from sellers and advertisers, the bets to absurd are rising up: we can read that they save up to 65% of water (but did not save soap?) And electricity (you see that they also heat water). Likewise, the fundamentals are also becoming more and more daring; Of the Lenard effect we go to the generation of “micromolecules of water with greater humectante capacity”, which leads us to think of a jivarización of the H2O that, being smaller, wet better. The microspheres, depending on the seller, may be “germanium” (lorite crayfish), Maifan (you guessed it: a stone used in Chinese medicine) or ceramic (as not), which get rid of chlorine (? ), To emit long-range infrared rays (ie, That for the same price showers also to the neighbor) and to kill fungi and bacteria. It also “softens” the water, whatever that means. So, with a stroke.
For ray-generating balls, those of the east lad.
The problem is that there are no micromolecules of water; The water is formed by an oxygen atom bound by covalent bonds to two atoms of hydrogen in an angle of 104,45 degrees. It can not shrink to form micromolecules or stretch to form macromolecules.
Neither can we generate a significant intensity of infrared rays by rubbing some ceramic balls. Any hot body emits infrared radiation , including our body which, at 37 ° C, emits more than four balls spinning in the middle of a jet of cold water.
On the other hand, certain porous ceramic materials can capture ions – among them chlorine – inside, and are commonly used in aquarium filters and various industrial applications. Now, chlorine, like all matter, occupies space. A few microporous ceramic beads (assuming they are) will saturate in a very short time, losing their little effectiveness. The germanium, I am not very clear whether it is for its use in infrared optics, the bacterial lethality of some of its compounds (which on the other hand are moderately toxic also for mammals) or both, and thus kill two Birds with one stone.
To summarize: a few balls that generate infrared rays, capture bacteria, chlorine and other demonic beings from the water, along with a few holes that break the molecule and produce ultra-clean negative ions, will allow us to shower without soap. Well, I just hope that the manufacturer does not recommend saving also on deodorant, that the meter is already hard enough first thing in the morning …
To finish, we will review the supposed effects of this alternative technological marvel, since if you believed that this great invention only served for your personal hygiene is because you are a perfidious skeptic: this serves for everything. The most modest advertisements are limited to the positive effects on the skin: prevention of dandruff, pimples, acne and hair loss, relief of atopic dermatitis and psoriasis, etc. However, the more daring go a few steps (giant) beyond and thus, some web says that these ecoduchas are very beneficial to the stomach, liver and kidney, because it works as if it were a natural diuretic.
And I wonder: are these good people drink the water that comes out of the shower?
Joking aside, when you start playing health issues, things get more serious. To begin with, dandruff is caused by a proliferation of small scabs of dead skin on the scalp due to various causes that we do not know fully. The treatments are very varied and depend on both the degree and the type or origin of the pathology. In mild cases, the use of acid shampoos may be effective in helping to restore the acidic environment of the scalp, but not the use of neutral shampoos or water alone. In more severe cases it is necessary to use stronger active principles that should be preferably recommended by a dermatologist. As far as we know, pure water does not prevent or relieve dandruff, which we are going to do.
Pathologic hair loss or alopecia can be of several types, but the most common is androgenic, hereditary alopecia and polygenic genetic basis. It is much more common in men because it needs androgens to develop. While there are treatments that can slow or even reverse androgenic alopecia, it is incurable because of its etiological complexity and, of course, no one has proven that it is prevented by washing the head without shampoo, irradiating with infrared ceramics while breaking water molecules to around you.Acne, on the other hand, is a disease caused by the obstruction of the hair follicles and the accumulation of fat secreted by the associated sebaceous gland, where a bacterium ( Propionibacterium acnes ) proliferates . Acne is also produced by multiple causes, such as hormonal activity, stress or some medications. The role of diet is debatable, but what is reasonably clear is that dirt does not favor acne. In fact, obstruction of the hair follicle occurs at a depth where it is impossible to remove it by washing. The use of gels and shampoos also seems to have no effect on acne, although high concentrations of chlorine compounds may produce it. Of course, the chlorine level of drinking water is insignificant by comparison;
Something similar happens with psoriasis, another disease that we believe is not due to a single cause, there is a genetic predisposition that requires certain environmental triggers to manifest, such as stress, trauma, infections and other climatic, metabolic and endocrine factors. Like alopecia, there is currently no cure for psoriasis, although its effects can be calmed in several ways, among which is a good hydration of the skin. But for this you have to drink water, do not throw it over.
Precisely and paradoxically, showering does not moisturize the skin, but dehydrates it directly proportional to the duration of the shower and the temperature of the water, causing the loss of the natural oils of the skin. If you suffer from psoriasis, consult your dermatologist about the recommended frequency, duration and type of shower, instead of relying on an advertising leaflet.
And, well, that of the liver, the stomach, and the kidney, I find it excessive to discuss it in detail; I’ll try to open my mouth more when I sing behind the curtain.
Calculating the age of dogs in “human years” is not always easy. However, this may change as US researchers confirm that there may be some equivalence between the age of a dog and that of a human, depending on the canine breed.
In Mascotas.cl we are always talking about dogs. These animals have been our friends and companions for centuries, they are characters who have been constantly around us, ready to surrender unconditionally. That is why it is not surprising all the scientific studies that revolve around them.
One of these studies was conducted at the University of Georgia and offered a mathematical and physiological operation that is recommended for those who think they have a dog or a dog. To better graph it, Daniel Promislow and Kate Creevy elaborated this sort of table of equivalences.
For the first two years:
– In small breeds, 1 year of the dog is equivalent to 12.5 humans
– In medium breeds, 1 year of the dog is equivalent to 10.5 human years
– In large breeds, 1 year of the dog is equivalent to 9 human
In the following : In small breeds , 1 year of the dog is
equivalent to these human years: – Dachshund (miniature dogs), 4.32
– Border Terrier, 4.47
– Chihuahua, 4.87West Highland White Terrier, 4.96
– Beagle, 5.20
– Miniature Schnauzer, 5.46
– Spaniel (Cocker), 5.55
– Cavalier King Charles, 5.77
– Pug, 5.95
– French Bulldog, 7.65
In medium breeds , 1 year of the dog is equivalent to these human years:
– Spaniel, 5.46
– Retriever (Labrador), 5.74
– Golden Retriever, 5.74
– Staffordshire Bull Terrier, 5.33
– Bulldog, 13.42
In large breeds , 1 year of the dog is equivalent to these human years:
– German Shepherd, 7.84
– Boxer, 8.90
It should be remembered that these figures are only scientific approaches, and that there are many other ways Of calculating the ages of dogs.
Take advantage of the following question: if a dog can live 5, 10 or 15 years, before adopting should ask themselves if they are willing to commit to having these pets for that time .
Soil steam cleaners have become an evolutionary way to clean homes and offices around the world.
It has many advantages and very few disadvantages when it comes to costs, health and maintenance of your floors in the best conditions.
In fact, a steam cleaner can actually restore and extend the life of your carpet, wood and tile floors.
Instead of being in a difficult position maybe a year or two after putting in new plants to have to renovate or replace the floor, steam cleaners can help prolong the life of your floors.
This new evolutionary form of cleanliness is also healthy and ecological. The machines have a new and refreshing technology that uses only water that turns into high temperature steam to lift slag, dirt and bacteria from the depths of your carpet, wood and tile floors.
Do not use any chemicals so if you are in the organic lifestyle it is about organic cleaning at its best.
Why not just use a
vacuum or normal mop?
Steam cleaning and steam cleaning plant in general is the best solution if you suffer from allergies and asthma or if you want a clean home without using aggressive and expensive chemicals.
If we remove steam from the floor cleaner then all you have is a mop or vacuum that will just catch the dust on the surface. Steam kills bacteria present in your home. Dust mites that are sometimes the leading cause of allergies and asthma are killed by high vapor temperatures.
Dust mites can be killed at 130 degrees onwards.
Most low steam cleaners easily reach these temperatures and can reach higher temperatures, depending on the brand and type. Mold can also be destroyed by steam as some types of mold are water resistant meaning that regular or washing remnants are not going to get rid of it.
If you have pets and find a pile of pet hairs on your floor the steam also collects hairs as the heat generates static electricity.
Static electricity is what makes the hairs spike when rubbing a balloon on it. Well, think about pet hairs being drawn from the depths of your carpets, leaving a nice clean home for you and the family.
Is it safe to use water vapor in floors?
Most critical consumers have shown that low steam cleaners are safe to use on all types of floors: carpets. Wooden floors and wooden floors.
Low quality steam cleaners come with switches and indicators suitable for indicating temperature and user manuals with proper procedures to ensure safety.
However, when it comes to wood floors, some consumers have said that water vapor can actually damage the floors! When I first came across this I was tempted to call the myth guys to come down to the bottom of these reviews but instead I did more research to see if this was true.
It seems that if you have a sealed wood floor surface then it is safe to use water vapor as it is stain resistant and water resistant.
Most of these sealed surface wood floors are sealed with urethane, polyurethane or poly-acrylic. These are elastomers and can withstand high temperatures. However, after being exposed to high temperatures for long periods at high frequencies that could affect their hardwood floors.
Sealing and treated petroleum floors have to be treated regularly with liquid wax or glue, which is also water resistant.
the regular or daily use steam cleaners in the two previous types of hardwood floor is not recommended. But you can use it from time to time to make sure your floors are properly cleaned and disinfected.
Soils that should not be steamed
The type of floor you have to worry about is lacquering, varnishing, varnishing and untreated floors, as they are surface finishes and are not water resistant. This means that steam is more likely to penetrate through the seams and damage the floor.
I would definitely not recommend low steam cleaners for that job.
Benefits of Steam Cleaning
One advantage of using a machine that does not use chemicals for cleaning is that it is safer for your family and a lot of chemicals used for household cleaning tend to cause allergies.
The steam cleaner have a powerful cleaning mechanism which cleans and throw away bacteria allowing you to have a natural home disinfected for you and your family to enjoy.
In fact, low vapor cleaner improves air quality in your home because of its powerful ability to kill bacteria dust mites as a common cause for asthma and allergies.
The main reason you will appreciate this new way to clean is the fact that the reduced effort taken to clean your floors. Yes you can say goodbye to the painful days of scrubbing your floors and using brooms, mops, vacuuming and expensive cleaning chemicals.
All of which have the ability to disinfect while cleaning floors in a safe manner that is not harmful to their loved ones.
If you’re all about organic methods to clean your house to greet the best way to clean.
The low vapor cleaner uses only water and a powerful brush to clean technology. This means that you do not have to use those harmful chemicals and introduce it to the environment. Washing the mop in water courses after using disinfectants to clean your wood floors and shingles are not exactly environment friendly or human.
This is definitely a way to do your part and be part of the fight to preserve and save the environment.
A resident of Islamabad (Pakistan) that sells tea market has become famous on the Internet after their photos were disseminated through social networks, reports the portal Quartz .
The image of the young Arshad Khan was taken casually few months ago by the photographer Jiah Ali, who rose to his Instagram account on 15 October. Photo young Pakistani, with his blue eyes, beard and bushy hair, quickly spread throughout Instagram, Twitter and Facebook.
On October 17, the hashtag #ChaiWala (tea seller) was trend in Pakistan networks, spreading later to India and the United inidô. Following the broadcast of the image, “between 40 and 50 girls visited me” morning of Tuesday, Khan recalled the channel Samaa .
After becoming a star of the Network, the young Pakistani model already works for the company ‘online’ Fitin , as seen from the main website photos.
The young Pakistani 18, Arshad Khan, caught the attention of the world when the photographer portrayed Jiah Ali and published the picture on Instagram.
Ali Khan saw when strolling through the bazaar of Itwar, one of the most popular markets in Islamabad.
So far, she published the photograph on social networks, which caused a stir by Arshad singular blue eyes. Even he became the #chaiwala trend twitter hashtag, to try to find the young man and his identity.
When he was found, the young man stopped to receive visits from women interested in buying hot tea. Even Arshad already received an offer from an online clothing store to be a model. What do you think?
There are several types of packaging materials currently used to meet the demands of a rigorous dedicated to the export market and consumer demand. They have created different packaging materials. Depending onthe product to be packaged, some require a material type or another that is better suited to its conservation, transportation or presentation. Among the packaging materials are the following:
– Natural materials: Those containers or containers that have traditionally been used such as large baskets made from natural material of bamboo leaves, palm, wicker or coir (ถุงพลาสติกใส in Thailand).They are not suitable, presenting several advantages over its use such as not being a rigid material and to deform easily, presenting sharp edges that come to tear the product losing its commercial value or because they are containers with poor hygiene and washing difficult.
– Cardboard is usually solid and smooth or knurled or channels on its surface. Cartons are made with varying depth and diversity of designs, sizes and strength.Always open at the top and the edges can be printed labeling with weight information etc. They can also be printed with the advertising of the company of origin. Cartons are clean and manageable but with the disadvantage that are easily damaged by moisture, stacking and handling.
– Wood: With this type of material boxes and drawers with wooden slats are made of different thickness. Such boxes are single – use and rigid, so they respond well to stacking and transport them. The cost of these packages are fully competitive with market demands, and in many cases similar to the corrugated packaging.
In the same way that photography was associated with the industry in the mid-nineteenth Sigli also made his first forays as a working tool in the world of science.
For example, the photograph was used from 1848 in medicine by psychiatrist Hugh Welch Diamond, considered the father of psychiatric photography.
Dr. Diamond was one of the founders of the Photographic Society of Wollongong Photo Booth and practiced medicine influenced by his father. He portrayed his patients, women of Surrey County Lunatic Asylum, with the intention to capture the image in different types of insanity or psychiatric ailments.
astronomical and aerial photography
The picture is also put at the service of astronomy . In 1852, Warren De la Rue was the first to obtain photographs of the Moon. From 1865 regularly photographing eclipses of the sun.
In 1861 the Union Army in the US monitors the movements of the enemy troops with pictures taken from a balloon with the help of a telegraph.
In the same year the photographer is at the service of the US military from a topographic view.
In 1859 René Dagron invented and patented the photomicrograph. He used the reduction procedure to create an industry postal service between Paris and Tours using carrier pigeons.The invention was called microfilm .
The messages were pooled and reduced to enter a film of 6 cm2. This could be between 3000 and 4000 messages. In his destination it was expanded and decrypted.
Microphotography began to develop widely in different countries like Britain, Germany and the US.
The researchers found the ideal method to lose weight and avoid so hated“rebound effect” . Should we add fat to the diet? They respond to you.
Come the warmer months, and people are desperate to lose those extra kilos that won in the winter. Internet begin to look at diets that celebrities do, the best exercises, and implement all together, without consulting a professional.
The problem is that not all diets, not all exercises, give the same results in all people. The genetics, lifestyle and certain environmental causes influencing blatantly processes weight loss , so it is never all in the hands of the regime shift you decide to follow.
That is why, scientists intervened to clarify some terms and give logical explanations, previously tested on the effectiveness of best drops diet plans that abide to the letter, without thinking whether they are really effective for us.
These results were published in the latest edition of October in the journal The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology .
Researchers at Brigham and Women ‘s Hospital and TH Chan Harvard School of Public Health conducted the study and, after an exhaustive review of the data generated, found the most effective way to lose weight without back.The question that was answered, should we include dietary fat or delete?
FAT ¿YES OR NO?
Most diets speak of completely eliminate fats of our diet. Although there are professionals who speak incorporate “good fats” because they are needed for our vital functions.
The researchers analyzed 53 clinical trials conducted to date, noting that low -fat diets help you lose weight, but weight loss is maintained for just over a year . Not those who defend the intake of fatty foods in relatively high amounts.
“For decades most people have followed low-fat diets and we still are facing a global epidemic of obesity. We knew something was not right in the message being promoted among consumers, “said Deidre Tobias, one of the researchers.
The scientists found that weight loss is best kept in time by following a diet high in fat and carbohydrates, with those that promote the opposite.”Surprisingly, low – fat diets were ineffective in the long run , ” said Tobias.
Epidemiologist, explained that not all fats are effective and that is why the study recommends to limit the amount of saturated fats and trans fatsconsumed, as they are harmful to health.
A fact that watched the scientists was the lack of willpower, do you sound ?: “Sticking to a diet either high or low in fat, long term seems to be the most difficult issue to perform for most people “she told the researcher.
Tobias found that, too, there is a potential problem with what people usually consume to replace foods high in fat. “People exchanged sources of healthy fats such as olive oil or nuts sugars and refined carbohydrates. Even if they are able to follow these diets long-term change certain foods by others does not lead to any positive results, or for the weight or health, “says the expert.
WHAT ARE THE “GOOD” FATS THAT CAN BE CONSUMED? – Omega 9: Olive oil, canola oil, avocado, walnuts, almonds, cashews and hazelnuts. Recommended amount: There is no set value.
– Omega 3: Fish oil, flaxseed oil, walnuts, sesame seeds, avocado, green leafy vegetables dark (cabbage, spinach, mustard greens), canola oil (first cold pressing), salmon, herring and eggs integers. recommended amount: Men: 3-3,5g a day and Women: 2-3g a day.
– Omega 6: Linseed oil, grape seed oil, pistachios, sunflower seeds, borage oil and evening primrose oil. Recommended amount: Men: 9-14g a day and Women: 7,5-12g a day.
The fact is that high-fat foods take longer to digest, so they help keep us satiated for longer, ergo, we eat less. A reasonable excuse, right?
Bodybuilders who have overcome controls steroids and not only differ in the amount of muscle mass they have obtained. For those who are interested in knowing the science of being a true natural bodybuilder, this article will shed some light.
Basically, there is a physiological limit to the amount of muscle that a human being of a certain height can accumulate without taking drugs of any kind (steroids, growth hormone, pro-hormones, etc.) (Kouri et al. 1995). Surprisingly, there is both subjective and objective way to determine if a builder is natural, and in addition, if aesthetic.
Aesthetics, for the purposes of this article, it is defined as being provided, symmetrical and have a good balance between muscle groups (Hansen. 2005). The problem with this definition is that it lacks formulas that provide a clear canon.
Although there are many bodybuilders standards, there are two sources that I consider of utmost importance for natural bodybuilding. They are the book “Natural Bodybuilding” by John Hansen and the book “Super Athletes” David Willoghby of DC personal trainer. In “Super Athletes” Hansen indicates what should be the action of certain body contours and Willoughby does the same, based on bodybuilders champions pre-steroid era.
THE RATE OF FAT-FREE MASS
The standard criteria for identifying natural bodybuilders is the rate of fat-free mass (FFMI) (Kouri et al. 1995). This has been used in other investigations and has application even among different age groups (Kyle et al., 2003; Schutz et al., 2002). However, our particular interest are only bodybuilders.
To my surprise and fascination, there is a study that sets the gold standard for detecting drug use among bodybuilders (Kouri et al. 1995). The data used to tabulate the FFMI bodybuilders partially comes from the pre-steroid era.
The data is first extracted from 84 drug users and 74 natural bodybuilders, and then were added to the analysis all winners of Mr. America during the years 1939-1959. It was concluded that there is a limit of 25 in the FFMI for natural athletes (Kouri et al. 1995). However, it should be noted that some of the Mr. America exceeded this value, being the highest of 28 and 25 the average FFMI.
It was argued that genetics and the margin of error with the actual fat percentage may have contributed to the above 25 values (Kouri et al. 1995). Based on the data, however, we can say that anyone with more than 25 FFMI is a genetic privileged and belongs to the elite of natural bodybuilding.
It might be possible to get a FFMI 30 being natural, but this tiny group of individuals represent the elite as stated before,. For most, the limit of 25 is the reference. Accordingly, if someone exceeds a FFMI 30, we should be very skeptical if it claims to be natural.
Finally, it should be noted that the maximum values of FFMI are based on state of competition bodybuilders (3-5% body fat), and for individuals who are overweight or more overweight the formula becomes invalid (Kouri et al. 1995). This formula is based on subjects as defined and large at the same time as possible.
You can use the following calculator to estimate the FFMI the greatest possible accuracy in the data (only valid for men) still needed:
16-17 Well below average
20: Above average
21: Noticeably on average
23 to 25: Superior (Inalcanzable for ordinary adults but accessible to 10% of natural bodybuilders)
26-27: Some natural bodybuilders could reach this level, according to genetic
28-29 It is possible but very unlikely to reach this level without drugs, as science has shown that natural bodybuilders never exceeded 28.
30 or higher: This person is not a natural bodybuilder, according to common sense, but also according to science.
I’ve always admired bodybuilders 70s rather than current. For example, some of my favorites were Arnold Schwarzenegger and Frank Zane. The interesting thing is that my initial thoughts on the natural appearance of the body were confirmed by the FFMI.
State of competition Frank Zane measured 1.75m and weighing 81.5 kg, and its FFMI 25.3.For Arnold, it was 28.7. When I introduced some of the past winners Olympia FFMI both were much higher than 30. The irony is that both Arnold and Zane were my favorites for its aesthetics.
We have therefore a numerical target value confirming subjective perception. In short,individuals with values above 30 FFMI lose the aesthetic appeal and the natural look.
As for the controls to detect the use of steroids, have some shortcomings:
People can learn to lie and beat the polygraph.
There are many drugs and masking substances in the body during the controls, even blood tests and urine may appear normal although steroids are used.
However, although the findings of this study were preliminary, the FFMI can be a useful tool in conjunction with polygraph testing and steroid use. In other words, a natural bodybuilder would be one that would overcome the 3 tests (polygraph test steroid test FFMI).
Although it is possible that even then a bodybuilder drug user pass the tests, at least its FFMI would equal chances to the point that drug users could be defeated by a natural in a bodybuilding competition. In fact, I have had news of similar events, when a natural competed in an event uncontrolled substances.
Employing the FFMI, whether natural or not individual, we help to level the possibilities. At this juncture, muscle mass and other aspects of bodybuilding as symmetry, proportion and stage presence are equanimously applied by judges (Gaines, 2001) are equal.
Not surprisingly scientific research has shown that the only difference between natural bodybuilders and drug users lies in the amount of muscle mass (D’Antona et al. 2006). So the question without profit ofender- is it really worth exposing several health problems only by the single component (muscle mass) that make us different from a natural?
All people who live with dogs have always stated that: our dogs feel and understand emotions as humans do and what is the best thing I can give my dog for pain. But now there is research that supports these claims. They are not “just animals” , really feel as we do .
Anyone who really loves his dog has said on countless occasions his friends that their animals get angry and sad. Our pets notice when we need your help or when you simply want to be left alone, based on many indications as our behaviors, pheromones, body language and as research has shown: our speech.
A group of researchers in Hungary , took pictures of the brains of dogs by MRI and found that reacted to the voices in the same way that humans do, especially sounds emotionally charged, as the laughter and tears. Dogs are able to cry and laugh so are two sounds that evoke specific responses in the brains of dogs.
A total of 11 dogs were trained to stand still during his explorations, using positive reinforcement training.
” There were 12 training sessions, then 7 sessions in the scanner room, then these dogs were able to stay still for 8 minutes.” “Once they were trained, they were so happy, I would not believe it if I had not seen , ” said Attila Andics study author from the Hungarian Academy of Science of the University Eotvos Lorand inBudapest (Hungary).
The researchers also observed the brains of 22 people for comparison. Each subject heard sounds of dogs and 200 humans from environmental sounds such as cars and whistles, to complain, barking and mourn. While humans showed stronger responses to human sounds, and dogs reacted more strongly to sounds of dogs, the results showed that our brains light up in similar areas .
They found that the temporal pole, the anterior temporal lobe, which regulates emotions, hearing, language, learning and memory, was part of the brain that are activated when they heard humans and animals sounds.
“We know that there are areas of speech in humans, areas that respond more strongly to human sounds than any other sounds,” explained Dr. Andics. “The location of the activity in the brains of dogs is very similar to what we found in the brains of humans. The fact that we found these areas in the brains of dogs is a big surprise, it’s the first time we’ve seen this in a non-primate “.
Just the fact that the brains of dogs are being studied goes to show how important they are for us, these are the first studies that human brains are compared to the brains of animals that are not primates.
“Voice areas are located similarly in dogs and humans, this means that these areas were developed at least 100 million years ago, the age of the last common ancestor of humans and dogs”.
Dogs and humans have been sharing a similar social environment for many years.
“Our findings suggest that they also use a similar mechanism brain to process social information. This can confirm that verbal communication between the two species. Dogs and humans use similar brain mechanisms to process social information and this is the first step in understanding the vocal communication between dogs and humans so successful. ”
“We know that dogs are very good at detecting the feelings of their owners, and we know that a good owner of a dog can detect emotional changes your dog, but now begin to understand why this is possible,” Andics said .
When the brain of a dog looks, it is clear that they are actually not so far from human in the sense of development. Other studies have shown that mental age of a dog is comparable to that of a preschool age child. It seems that one of the only things that really separates humans from dogs is the hyoid bone, which gives us humans the ability to speak.
The objective of the Master of Science in Project Management program is to provide the knowledge needed to offer advanced and effective management of projects at a time when companies and organizations are increasingly in this key area.
You will acquire a knowledge of all management and planning disciplines, as well as a deep understanding of skills such as organizational change and behavioral management. This will open up opportunities for pan-regional and multi-sectoral project management for creatives.
Master of Science in Project Management
The MSc in Project Management provides the skills necessary to deliver advanced project management.It does so at a time when companies and organizations are increasingly focused on the strategic importance of effective project management, which is essential if capital is to be implemented so that provides a competitive advantage.
The program is designed to meet the standards set by the governing bodies recognized worldwide. So you get an understanding of all fundamental project management disciplines and phases, and how they are applied in very different environments.
The core modules cover topics such as Planning and Budgeting, Execution and Control Contracts and Procurement, and sustainability. Then you will specialize in the study of two optional modules on topics such as Total Quality Management, the modeling and construction operations.
Fundamentally, it will also be introduced to areas such as organization and behavior management. The understanding of organizations, people and cultures is crucial in the multicultural workplace today, and is essential for successful project management.
You must pass the knowledge and experience necessary to carry out project management design, planning, execution and delivery on time and on budget. In addition, you will have a solid grounding in all current project methodologies. This will open up flexible career structures that transcend sectors and regions, allowing you to practice effective project management in all professional environments.
La Laguna (Tenerife), Feb 22 (EFE) .- The Canary biologist investigates Rosa Fregel Stanford University (USA) DNA of former African slaves and Asian workers who in the past arrived on the island of Mauritius as hand labor to work in the sugar cane cultivation.
The aim of the project is to compare past and present populations of Mauritius and thus know, among other things, whether the genetic mix has increased predisposition to certain diseases.
Rosa Fregel a PhD in Biology from the University of La Laguna and his research has focused on genetic analysis of both Aboriginal and historical human populations of the Canary Islands, he says in an interview with EFE.
Currently, he is developing his research in the lab of Carlos Bustamante, within the Department of Genetics at Stanford University.
“It is studying ancient populations but instead of using ceramic or stone tools, as would an archeologist, genetic markers are used. We can characterize populations of different regions over time and try, for example, detecting areas were uninhabited by the expansion of a desert and then they returned to live “details.
The data can be compared with modern DNA to take blood samples or saliva of the current population, while in the past to investigate the biologist removed the genetic material from bones and teeth from archaeological sites.
His association with these studies in Mauritius grew out of the experience of the biologist in the analysis of ancient DNA in samples from the Eighteenth Century Cemetery Church of the Conception of Santa Cruz de Tenerife.
This temple suffers frequent flooding and therefore the buried remains were severely degraded by contact with water.
The same is true in the cemetery of slaves in Mauritius, located near the beach in Le Morne, partially flooded at high tide.
For that reason Krish Seetah, director of the Archaeology and Cultural Heritage Mauritius contacted the Canary scientific to become part of the research team.
When European sailors arrived in Mauritius it was uninhabited island so its population is a mixture of influences from the colonial era, with Dutch, British and French, in addition to African slaves brought from Madagascar.
Slaving for growing sugar cane reached such a point that there was a time when 80 percent of the population of Mauritius was Africa or Madagascar.
At the site of Le Morne burials of African slaves who escaped from plantations and sought refuge in a very steep and inaccessible area are preserved, so for European landowners was cheaper to buy new slaves to go look.
This enclave has been declared a World Heritage Site by Unesco as a symbol of resistance to slavery but, according to the oral tradition of the region, the ending was tragic because, when it finally came the police to inform the slaves were free , they thought they were going to catch them again and chose threw himself from a cliff.
After the abolition of slavery in just a couple of decades the population of Mauritius was transformed from mostly African to have 65 percent of Hindus, in a radical ethnic changes promoted by the economic interest of European colonialism, which needed a new source of cheap labor.
To study the effect it had on Mauritius are also analyzing samples of Bois Marchand cemetery.
This cemetery contains the remains of the thousands of people who died in Mauritius due to an epidemic of malaria, which were mostly Hindus.
The process of genetic mixing in the population of Mauritius is complex and interesting from the genetic point of view and the departments of Genetics and Anthropology at the University of Stanford in investigating Rosa Fregel are interested in knowing how it affects the current population island, where there is a high rate of diabetes and obesity.
Furthermore, these studies may help clarify why when the population was predominantly African had resistance to malaria, and since there was a change in the source of labor began to spread epidemics.
“Hindu workers were not resistant to malaria or some type of parasite or mosquito was introduced there was before?” Asks Fregel.
In research also involved the University of Copenhagen, in whose laboratory the “libraries” of DNA-small DNA fragments attached to ADAPTERS- for later study at Stanford, where the nucleotide sequence is obtained are built.
Rosa Fregel states that if the archaeological samples analyzed are well preserved may reconstruct the genome of these ancient inhabitants of mauritius luxury villas.
The pill makes the body believe that calories consumed, allowing you to burn fat, slow weight gain, help reduce cholesterol and control blood sugar.
A group of US scientists has developed a pill, tested so far in mice, that “fools the body” into believing that consumed calories, which makes burn fat, curb weight gain and helps reduce cholesterol and controls blood sugar.
“This pill is like an imaginary food,” said the director of the Laboratory of gene expression Salk in the United States, Ronald Evans, author of the study published today in the journal Nature Medicine Pill “It sends the same type of signals that normally occur when you eat a lot of food, so the body starts to make room for storage, but no calories or changes in appetite,” he said.
The research team is already working to start human clinical trials to test the effectiveness of the Pastillas para Bajar de Peso Rapidonew compound in the treatment of obesity and metabolic diseases.
Fexaramina compound does not dissolve in the blood as appetite suppressants medications or diet based caffeine, but remains in the intestine, which causes less side effects, as is study.
Evans lab devoted nearly two decades to study the fernesoide X receptor (FXR), a protein involved in the release of bile acids in the liver, digestion of food and storage of fats and sugars.
The human body activates FXR at the beginning of the meal to prepare for the arrival of food, so that not only triggers the release of bile acids for digestion, but modifies the levels of blood sugar and causes the body to burn some fats.
Pharmaceutical companies have already developed systemic drugs that activate FXR to treat obesity, diabetes, liver disease and other metabolic, but such drugs affect various organs and cause side effects, according to the article.
Evans considered whether activate FXR only in the intestine rather than in intestine, liver, kidneys and adrenal glands while, could have a different result.
Thus, they developed a compound that fexaramina be administered orally in the gut acted alone, without reaching into the bloodstream, so that decreased side effects and made it more effective to curb weight gain.
When scientists administered to obese mice a daily pill for five weeks, they failed to gain weight, lose fat and lowered their blood sugar levels and cholesterol, compared to untreated animals.
Since the compound of fexaramina does not reach the bloodstream it may be safer in humans than other medicines that aims to activate FXR, adds the study.
The National University of Cordoba said institutional interest an initiative by a research team at the Faculty of psychology to carry forward the project of Longitudinal Best Survey Sites on Alcohol (ELSA), and thus identify groups with risk of problematic consumption patterns.
The scientific work will be applied on a sample of at least 4000 students from UNC, aged between 18 and 25 years, belonging to different races, and perpetrators are researchers of CONICET and the Faculty of psychology, Angelina Pilatti and Ricardo Pautassi.
What will seek to know are paths of college students drinking from your income and years of education. In addition, the factors that have greater effect on the forecast of consumption of alcohol and other substances, as well as the problems associated with these practices will be identified.
In this sense, different questionnaires investigate the socio-demographic information of the subjects (age, sex, socioeconomic status, etc.); consumption of alcohol and other substances; tobacco and drugs; problems associated with alcohol (occupational, academic, interpersonal problems, conduct of risk, etc.); perception of parents of students consumption; and it will also seek to gather information to build a family history of alcohol abuse.
The UNC scientists aims to follow participants for approximately five years studied. Had already made a first preliminary work from the cohort who started in 2014.
The ELSA, Angelina Pilatti, project director explains: “substance use is a behavior with characteristic and changing patterns that require frequent and regular measurements. The systematic measurement of substance use behaviours is fundamental for, on the one hand, know what the status of this problem and, on the other hand, identify changes or trends in the use of these substances over time.”
In this way, through the use of questionnaires, each year will collect new information from the sample “to create an observatory that register and identify the behaviour of consumption of this population. “We plan to follow the participants from 2016 to 2020, and so on”, says Pilatti.
According to the team, in Argentina there are no epidemiological studies focusing on the University population and no longitudinal research – which are studying a group of people over a period of time – that allow analyzing trajectories of consumption and develop theoretical models. This information is necessary to identify people at risk of becoming dependent and develop prevention plans.
“We will improve our understanding of the behaviour of consumption and its consequences, and risk factors,” says Pilatti.
“We will be able, for example, generate profiles who are freshmen at the UNC that with risk of developing problems with alcohol.” These profiles can be used in screenings socio-health to detect individuals and thus to guide clinical decisions or public policy. “In short: you can make decisions and develop plans based on scientific evidence”, complete the researcher.
Alcohol and college students
According to the international scientific literature, the excessive consumption of alcohol among college students is an important public health problem in several countries, such as United States, Italy and Sweden. In the country’s North, for example, research indicates that half of the students exhibit consumption “binge” (when swallowed, once same, 56/70 grams of alcohol in women and in men). 20% of U.S. students, moreover, have abuse and suffer from dependency. This last group is more likely to experience negative consequences including failures of academic performance, fainting, unplanned and unsafe sex, sexual, physical aggressions and accidents. The consequences are also long-term, since some students keep this pattern of problematic use throughout the race. We found that 43% of young people aged 18-19 who were diagnosed with alcohol abuse disorder continued to maintain that diagnosis seven years later, that is, when they were 25 years old.
The cinema has always nourished daily life to make his best films. One of the points most commonly used is the science: from cloning to super – technological inventions, science is part of the seventh art. The following is a list of 10 (and some more) films for science lovers. Not for its cinematic style criticize or judge here their successes and scientific errors , let ‘s face it : none of that matters. The cinema and science is the best combination of all … especially for a rainy day and visiting movie25.
No. 10 Jurassic Park (1993)
In this classic science fiction , although some it may seem a movie without much sense, because it raises an important fact about cloning: problems bring to mind some extinct species . If we consider that today is talk of cloning a mammoth, Jurassic Park was not so wrong. There are stills other chapters of Jurassic Park and they are all available on Movie4k
No. 9 A Beautiful Mind (2001)
This film is based on the life of John Nash who was one of the most important men of the contemporary economy through the development of game theory.Nash had schizophrenia , and despite his illness he managed to become a globally recognized academic prestigious . Nash died on May 23, 2015 with his wife in atraffic accident .
No. 8 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968)
A classic among science fiction films and lovers of science in general, Kubrick made a film in which scientists try a lot of problems about human evolution and artificial intelligence. In the film there is a buried beneath the surface of the moon object, and with the intelligent computer HAL 9000 aboard embark on a mission to discover what it is. It takes no great analysis: Stanley Kubrick was a visionary of what would be many years later, technology and space exploration missions .
No. 7 Contact (1997)
In this film, Ellie Arroway Dr. checks extraterrestrial life existence through radio contact. The aliens send him to build a mysterious machine that will have consequences for all mankind. While it has a caliper more science fiction than science impossible – that a satellite orbiting earth man – made could be used to simulate a sign of a star- poses something today scientists ask themselves : there extraterrestrial life ? It is also based on the only novel written by Carl Sagan .
No. 6 Wall-E (2008)
This animated film Pixar is led by two robots will be responsible for changing the history of mankind. Not only the issue of robots in question but also to live on other planets, pollution and climate change . It is one of those movies that seem to guys but actually have a great message for adults; something that Pixar always knew how to handle very well.
No. 5 The Truman Show (1998)
Today we can not live without technology, and gradually we realize that we are at the mercy of no privacy. What is different about this film starring Jim Carrey , where his whole life is a sham filmed and televised?
This film takes the form of an Orwellian dystopia type in which the main character is a victim of the evolution of an increasingly dehumanized society. If you doubt this film is itself a reference to the work 1984 , by George Orwell in which there is aBig Brother all – seeing, all – knowing. In turn, it is impossible not to relate Carrey’s character with the Wild Brave New World , the literary work of Aldous Huxley .
# 4 Back to the Future (1985)
It is a classic film of time travel in which Marty McFly back to the past to meet their parents, help them fall in love and try to go home. Is very well travel in time, though probably not accept a DeLorean as a time machine strictly scientific.
No. 3 Minority Report (2002)
Based on a short story by Phillip K. Dick, the film presents a future in which crimes are seen by psychics and held back by police before committing the act. Although it may sound good in principle, the film shows it has some bugs that are impossible to overcome. Something similar was approached by the TV seriesPerson of Interest .
# 2 The Man from Earth (2007)
This film is about a university professor John Oldman- who is interrogated after an impromptu farewell party because tests have shown that this is a Cro-Magnonbearing on earth fourteen thousand years. The film is a constant pose and intellectual discussion among scientists. Highly recommended.
No. 1 Interstellar (2014)
Perhaps the best film of this list, at least from the point of view of scientific successes. Interstellar is the first science fiction film that is acclaimed and approved unanimously by the scientific community. Touch sensitive issues such a precise and careful so that nothing escapes the script. Space-time singularities,wormholes , black holes, planetary exploration, extraterrestrial life … everything!This movie has it all! And Matthew McConaughey , of course, that always makes everything much more attractive.
# Bonus: Gravity (2013)
With Sandra Bullock and George Clooney nothing can go wrong, right? Well, actually, this film itself took many flowers, but also a lot of criticism for his scientific errors. Personally I think it is one of the most interesting and creative films of recent times. Photography, special effects and the level of the cast were able to overcome any scientific inaccuracies, at least from my point of view.
Came from the main asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter
A meteor crossed at an estimated 250 kilometers per hour the roof of a house in the Uruguayan city of Maldonado (southeast), a fact that speed there have been fewer than 15 cases in the last 100 years, said Tuesday the Faculty of Sciences of the University of the Republic of Uruguay.
The meteorite, 712 grams of weight and a density of 3.4 grams per cubic centimeter, higher than most terrestrial rocks according to sources, crossed the wooden roof construction and roofing slate at a speed estimated at 250 km per hour and broke the mattress of a bed and a television.
As explained by the director of the Department of Astronomy at the Faculty of Science at the Matrix Roofing Melbourne, Gonzalo Tancredi, the meteorite comes from the ” main asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter .”
“There are some objects that escape from the area and come to cross the orbit of the Earth and can impact against our planet,” he added based on scientific studies that have been done on these objects.
The incident took place on 18 September and the family of the affected house investigators contacted the Department of Astronomy at the Faculty of Udelar to study the piece.
From the analysis, which helped researchers at the National Museum of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) and the Institute of Astronomical Sciences, Earth and Space San Juan (Argentina), the meteorite was originally classified as “Rocky . type gap ”
Tancredi said there are basically two types of meteorites: metallic and rocky.
The first are denser and are composed mainly of iron and nickel, while rock silicates and have a lower proportion of iron and nickel.
As to what “type gap , ” the scientist said that is because its internal structure is “totally fragmented.”
Is currently underway chemical and petrological analysis of the object in order to establish a more specific classification of the piece , which provide more information about its’ origin and age. ”
The fragment presents a “slight magnetism to be attracted by a magnet” -due to the presence of iron and has a black crust on the surface, the result of high temperatures when entering the atmosphere over 11 kilometers per second and be air braking, which produced the fusion of rock.
Furthermore, other characteristics, the surface has similar markings to fingerprints, called ‘regmaglypts’, which are produced by molding hot air flows over the rock.
According to the Faculty of Sciences Udelar in the last 100 years there have been fewer than 15 cases worldwide where a meteorite affects construction, as the case happened in the city of San Carlos, in the town of maldonado.
The characteristics of the rock is expected to be part of a larger rock that broke up upon entering the atmosphere, so an initial search of more fragments was performed within three or four kilometers around the house, though so far not found more, it indicates the text submitted by the academic center.